ASTM Biodiesel Specifications
These tables show selected ASTM requirements for B100 and B6 to B20. Note that the specifications are routinely updated and modified. Check with your fuel provider to ensure they are storing biodiesel meeting the most recent fuel quality standards. To learn more about biodiesel, go to the Fuel Basics or Blends pages. The National Biodiesel Accreditation Program takes fuel quality a step further with the BQ9000 program combining ASTM standards and a quality systems program, which includes biodiesel production through end-use.
|Property||Test Method||Grade No.1-B S15||Grade No.1-B S500||Grade No.2-B S15||Grade No.2-B S500|
|Sulfur, % mass (ppm), max||D5453||0.0015 (15)||0.05 (500)||0.0015 (15)||0.050 (500)|
|Cold soak filterability, s, max||D7501||200||200||360||360|
|Monoglycerides, % mass, max||D6584||0.4||0.4||-||-|
|Requirements for All Grades|
|Calcium and Magnesium, combined, ppm, max||EN14538||5||5||5||5|
|Flash point (closed cup), °C, min||D93||93||93||93||93|
One of the following must be met
|(1) Methanol content, mass%, max||EN14110||0.2||0.2||0.2||0.2|
|(2) Flash point, °C, min||D93||130||130||130||130|
|Water and sediment, % volume, max||D2709||0.05||0.05||0.05||0.05|
|Kinematic viscosity, mm2/s, 40°C||D445||1.9-6.0||1.9-6.0||1.9-6.0||1.9-6.0|
|Sulfated ash, % mass, max||D874||0.02||0.02||0.02||0.02|
|Copper strip corrosion||D130||No. 3||No. 3||No. 3||No. 3|
|Cetane number, min||D613||47||47||47||47|
|Cloud point, °C||D2500||Report||Report||Report||Report|
|Carbon residuea, % mass, max||D4530||0.05||0.05||0.05||0.05|
|Acid number, mg KOH/g, max||D664||0.5||0.5||0.5||0.5|
|Free glycerin, % mass, max||D6584||0.02||0.02||0.02||0.02|
|Total glycerin, % mass, max||D6584||0.24||0.24||0.24||0.24|
|Phosphorus content, % mass, max||D4951||0.001||0.001||0.001||0.001|
|Distillation temperature, 90% recovered (T90)b, °C, max||D1160||360||360||360||360|
|Sodium and potassium, combined, ppm, max||EN14538||5||5||5||5|
|Oxidation stability, hrs, min||EN15751||3||3||3||3|
a Carbon residue shall be run on the 100% sample.
b Atmospheric equivalent temperature.
B6 to B20
This table shows requirements for 6% biodiesel (B6) to 20% biodiesel (B20) as listed in ASTM D7467-13. The full standard can be purchased from ASTM International.
B6 to B20 S15 B6 to B20 S500 j B6 to B20 S5000
|Acid number, mg KOH/g, max.||D664||0.3||0.3||0.3|
|Viscosity, mm2/s at 40°C||D445||1.9-4.1a||1.9-4.1a||1.9-4.1a|
|Flash point, °C, min||D93||52b||52b||52b|
|Cloud point, °C, max or LTFT/CFPP, °C, max||D2500||c||c||c|
|Sulfur Content, (μg/g or ppm)|
mass %, max.
mass %, max.
|Distillation temperature, °C, 90% evaporated, max||D86||343||343||343|
|Ramsbottom carbon residue on 10% bottoms, mass %, max.||D524||0.35||0.35||0.35|
|Cetane number, min||D613||40||40||40|
|One of the following must be met:|
|(1) Cetane index, min||D976-80||40||40||40|
|(2) Aromaticity, vol %, max.||D1319-03||35||35||—|
|Ash Content, mass %, max.||D482||0.01||0.01||0.01|
|Water and Sediment, vol %, max.||D2709||0.05||0.05||0.05|
|Copper Corrosion, 3 h @ 50°C, max||D130||No. 3||No. 3||No. 3|
|Biodiesel Content, % (V/V)||D7371||6.–20.||6.–20.||6.–20.|
|Oxidation Stability, hours, min.||EN15751||6||6||6|
|Lubricity, HFRR @ 60°C, (micron μm), max.||D6079||520||520||520|
a If Grade No. 1-D or blends of Grade No. 1-D and Grade No. 2-D diesel fuel are used, the minimum viscosity shall be 1.3 mm2/s.
b If Grade No. 1-D or blends of Grade No. 1-D and Grade No. 2-D diesel fuel are used, or a cloud point of less than -12°C) is specified, the minimum flash point shall be 38°C.
c It is unrealistic to specify low-temperature properties that will ensure satisfactory operation at all ambient conditions. However, satisfactory operation below the cloud point (or wax appearance point) may be achieved depending on equipment design, operating conditions, and the use of flow-improver additives as described in X3.1.2. Appropriate low-temperature operability properties should be agreed upon between the fuel supplier and purchaser for the intended use and expected ambient temperatures. Test Methods D 4539 and D 6371 may be useful to estimate vehicle low temperature operability limits when flow improvers are used, but their use with Bxx blends from a full range of biodiesel feedstock sources has not been validated. Due to fuel delivery system, engine design, and test method differences, low-temperature operability tests may not provide the same degree of protection in various vehicle operating classes. Tenth percentile minimum air temperatures for U.S. locations are provided in Appendix X3 as a means of estimating expected regional temperatures. The tenth percentile minimum air temperatures may be used to estimate expected regional target temperatures for use with Test Methods D 2500, D 4539, and D 6371. Refer to X3.1.3 for further general guidance on test application.